To complete the task, you need to match 7 headings to the correct paragraphs in the text. Choose from the list (A-I) and match it to a paragraph (1-7). There is an extra sentence and an example given (0).
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A. Made from natural materials
B. Golf finds its saintly home
C. Falling prices and new materials
D. Formalising the rules of play
E. The game becomes international
F. Historical traditions, differing designs
G. A new game for soldiers and kings
H. The linguistic roots of a golfing term
I. Is golf just a game for the rich and wealthy?
0. Golf originated from a game played on the eastern coast of Scotland, in an area close to the royal capital of Edinburgh. In those early days, players would attempt to hit a pebble over sand dunes and a round tracks using a bent stick or club. During the 15th century, Scotland prepared to defend itself against an invasion by England. The nation’s enthusiastic pursuit of golf, however, led many to neglect their military training, so King James II banned the sport. In 1502 the game gained the royal seal of approval when King James IV of Scotland (1473 -1513) became the world’s first golfing monarch.
1. The popularity of the game quickly spread throughout 16th century Europe thanks to this royal endorsement. King Charles, I brought the game to England and Mary Queen of Scots introduced the game to France when she was sent there to attend school; the term ‘caddie’ derives from the name for her French military aides, known as cadets.
2. One of the premier golf courses of the day was at Leith near Edinburgh and it hosted the first international golf match in 1682. The game of golf officially became a sport when the Gentlemen Golfers of Leith formed the first club in 1744 and set up an annual competition with silverware prizes. The rules for this new competition were drafted and remain relatively unchanged today.
3. The first-ever 18-hole course was constructed at St Andrews in 1764,
establishing the now recognised standard for the game. King William IV honoured the club with the title ‘Royal & Ancient’ in 1834, with that recognition and its fine course the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews was established as the world’s premier golf club.
4. At this time golfers were using hand-crafted woo den clubs usually made from beech with shafts of ash or hazel, and balls were made from compressed feathers wrapped in a stitched horsehide. This equipment meant that the distances covered were much shorter than in today’s game, and shots were not nearly as precise as the equipment didn’t allow it. Tiger Woods would never have been able to have covered the distances he can with the old equipment.
5. During the 19th century as the might of the British Empire expanded to encompass the globe, so golf followed closely behind. The first golf club formed outside Scotland was the Royal Blackheath (near London) in 1766. The first golf club outside Britain was the Bangalore, India (1820). Others quickly followed included the Royal Curragh, lreland (1856) , the Adelaide (1870), Royal Montreal (1873), Cape Town (1885), St Andrew’s of New York (1888) and Royal Hong Kong (1889) .
6. The Industrial Revolution of the Victorian era brought with it many changes. The birth of the railways allowed ordinary people to explore outside of their towns and cities for the first time, and as a consequence golf clubs began to appear all over the countryside. Mass production methods were adopted to manufacture metal clubs and new balls, making the game more affordable to the average person.
7. In modern times, it is the golf courses themselves that reflect the history of the game, with the US courses presented as beautifully sculptured and manicured landscaped parklands, unlike those in Britain, which are typically rough links courses with deep bunkers. To this day, some of the most famous golf courses in the world are still to be found in Scotland and their names evoke the passion and tradition of the game of golf.
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